The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO’s) Fourth GHG study 2020
reported that in 2018 global shipping energy demand accounted for nearly
11 exajoules (EJ), resulting in around 1 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2)
(international shipping and domestic navigation) and 3% of annual global
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a CO2-equivalent basis. Fossil fuels. i.e. heavy
fuel oil (HFO), marine gas oil (MGO), very low-sulfur fuel oil (VLSFO) and, more
recently on a small scale, the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) currently provide
up to 99% of the sector’s final energy demand.
International shipping enables 80-90% of global trade and comprises about
70% of global shipping energy emissions. If the international shipping sector
were a country, it would be the sixth or seventh-largest CO2 emitter, comparable to
Germany. Yet, international shipping emissions fall outside national GHG emission
accounting frameworks.
In this context, this report by the International Renewable Energy Agency
(IRENA) explores the options and actions needed to progress towards a
decarbonized maritime shipping sector by 2050 and seeks to identify a realistic
mitigation pathway consistent with a wider societal goal of limiting global
temperature rise to 1.5°C (degrees Celsius) and bringing CO2 emissions closer to
net-zero by mid-century. The report discusses:….etc.

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