Each government of the countries surveyed acted quickly to contain the spread of COVID-19 and curb the impact of economic disruption through large-scale stimulus packages. Containment measures began in late February in Indonesia, while the government seamlessly implemented emergency fiscal packages covering health expenditures
(such as the procurement of medical equipment); social assistance (food assistance, for example); and economic assistance (including financial assistance to MSMEs). The Lao PDR started containment measures on 23 March,
including travel bans, school closures, and prohibition of mass gatherings. It implemented a complete lockdown during 1–20 April with several extensions during May, and the government offered tax relief, debt restructuring, and new loans for individuals and MSMEs. The Philippines imposed strict lockdown and quarantine measures, including an Enhanced Community Quarantine (ECQ) in the capital region and other high-risk provinces on 16 March, with select extensions in May. The government provided a comprehensive set of support measures for households and businesses, such as an emergency subsidy program for families and wage supplements to employees of small businesses. Thailand started containment measures, including travel bans and a curfew, on 26 March, extended to…….

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