Brunei Darussalam has been consuming gasoline and diesel oil for road transport activities due to the increase of personal cars and natural gas for power generation following the rapid increase of electricity demand. In addition, a new refinery, which started its operation at the end of 2019, consumes imported coal for auto generation in the refinery site. According to the country’s energy outlook produced by the Ministry of Energy, the total primary energy supply (TPES), mainly from fossil fuels, will increase significantly at 4.3% per year until 2040 at 5.6% of gross domestic product growth. In parallel, CO2 emissions will increase at 3.6% annually until 2040.

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