Using the strategies of direct purchase and “market
for technology,” China has long relied on technology
import for its own techno-industrial development.
China attributed its low value-added exports and
thin-profit-margin manufacturing at the beginning
of the twenty-first century to the lack of advanced
technologies and began to create national policies
and plans for indigenous technological innovation
and the development of advanced manufacturing.
Core technologies in 13 areas and more than 20
strategic emerging industries have been specified
as the priorities in China’s techno-industrial
development since then, and policy and financial
support has been provided to promote these core
technologies and related advanced manufacturing.

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