Over the past two decades, open processes around the sharing, use of,
and collaboration with digital information and communication resources
have emerged in earnest. Open processes typically offer license to use,
reuse, and modify resources for free and do not impose access restrictions.
As Tim O’Reilly (cited in Macmanus 2004, n.p.), creator of the participatory
web, stated, “The network is opening up some amazing possibilities for us
to reinvent content, reinvent collaboration.” Few innovations of the past
quarter century epitomize the transformative potential of networked technologies
such as open processes. Producing open source software (van Reijswoud
and de Jager 2008), sharing open and linked data (Powell, Davies, and
Taylor 2012; United Nations Global Pulse 2012), producing crowdsourced
knowledge (Saif et al. 2009), sharing open access publications (Nyamrjiah
2009), creating open educational resources (Percy and Van Belle 2012), and
using Web 2.0 tools (Sadowsky 2012) are examples of open processes with
widespread potential to facilitate positive social transformation.

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