Fully decarbonizing U.S. industry is essential to achieving net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by midcentury. This paper evaluates the regional, economic, and technical realities of decarbonizing U.S. industry in order to inform state and
federal strategies to address this category of emissions.
The analysis focuses on reducing emissions from four industrial sectors: 1) chemicals, 2) metals, 3) minerals, and 4) pulp & paper manufacturing. It identifies three key technologies that are critical to reducing industrial GHG emissions across these
sectors: 1) carbon capture, 2) electrification, and 3) zero-carbon hydrogen.
Previous research has found that the viability of these technologies will be influenced by local characteristics such as the availability of low-cost zero-carbon electricity, carbon storage resources, and supportive infrastructure. Thus, strategies to
reduce industrial GHG emissions will vary widely among sectors and regions. This analysis builds upon previous research to better understand how decarbonization strategies might vary across U.S states and regions. A key insight is that the abundance of carbon storage resources and CO2 pipelines in the Gulf Coast make carbon capture and sequestration a
viable technology for industrial facilities located in this region, while abundant and low-cost renewable electricity can be used to electrify production processes or produce zero-carbon hydrogen to reduce emissions from industrial facilities in the

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