Since at least 2017, the government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has inflicted an
unprecedented system of mass internment, surveillance, and involuntary labor on Uyghur, Kazakh, and other minoritized peoples of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR or the Uyghur Region). Estimates suggest that as many as 1.8 million people have been held in a vast region-wide system of extrajudicial internment camps, where the PRC government admits to conducting ideological re-education, mandatory courses in Xi Jinping thought, and compulsory labor programs meant to “fundamentally build a line of defense against the penetration of terrorism and extremism.”1 There is significant first-person testimony to suggest detainees are subjected to torture, sterilization, and rape while interned.

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