Public–private partnerships (PPPs), especially in the context of infrastructure
development, have gained in popularity over the past decades and are now largely
accepted both in developed and developing countries. PPPs are broadly defined as
“cooperation between public-private actors in which they jointly develop products
and services and share risks, costs and resources which are connected with these
products and services” (Van Ham and Koppenjan 2001). However, scholars and
practitioners define PPPs differently, with Hodge and Greve (2007) indicating, for
example, that there are numerous notions and several “families” of PPPs (see Box 1
for details). Often adopted by development institutions, such as the World Bank and
the Asian Development Bank (ADB), as well as developing countries, the narrow
definition of PPPs examined in this brief is as follows: PPPs are projects with longterm
infrastructure contracts “bundling” the components of delivery to efficiently.

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